In keeping with an ongoing effort toward greater inclusion and equity at CHI, we’re happy to announce the chairing of a new position: CHI Equity. Meant to help build greater capacity for inclusive practices and foster a culture of respect, this position is tasked with a number of responsibilities: from advocacy and service/facility establishment to communication between other SIGs and chairs; program development; training programs; space-making; accountability maintenance; and on-the-ground support for equity-related efforts at the conference.
CHI is an enormous event and institution. It reflects the work of many hands, minds and hearts, and many of the equity initiatives and programs would not exist without dedicated volunteer chairs. Beyond the extensive work of the General Chairs and Assistants to the General Chairs, CHI currently involves efforts from: Local Arrangements Chairs, Accessibility Chairs, CHI Family/Childcare Chairs, Diversity and Inclusion Lunch Chairs, Language Inclusion Chairs, Newcomers Chairs, Sustainability Chairs, Communications Chair, Telepresence and Livestreaming Chairs, and countless others and their surrounding support communities. With over 50 different chaired positions responsible for the many initiatives at CHI, the transmission of information (be it feedback, lessons, plans or needs) is complicated. Small mistakes are magnified, and sometimes large issues are overlooked. Part of our role is helping with communication, doing what we can to ensure better institutional memory and on-the-ground initiatives.
It’s our inaugural year, so our position is largely in development and administrative. However, we’ve done great deal of review: what’s been working for past participants, what hasn’t, and what’s possible within organizational limitations. We’ve consulted with over 60 professionals and organizations with long-standing experience in equity, capacity-building, and organizing. And with the support of the CHI steering committee and CHI 2019’s general chairs, we would like to announce several initiatives. Alongside our internal efforts to build upon previous years’ work, we’d like to highlight the following initiatives (and encourage you to visit the Equity page for more information on each):
- ALLYSHIP PROGRAM: This year you will see allies (designated by an “ALLY” pin) throughout the entire conference. Selected for their past experiences in equity-related activities and organizing, these volunteers have received training by us in basic bystander intervention, harassment, and discrimination management, as well as relevant policies and CHI Equity procedures. They are friendly and informed faces we encourage you to approach whether you have questions about equity matters, need direction, or are looking to file a report. If you would like to volunteer as an official ally, please indicate so on your registration!
- LISTENING POST: Another opportunity to hear and be heard, there will be a drop-in “listening post” event on May 8th from 8:00-10:20am, in Island B CROWN. This will be an opportunity to openly express your experiences, thoughts, wants, and concerns regarding your CHI experience, to the Equity Chairs and other organizers.
- REPORTING SYSTEM: In the event that an attendee experiences or witnesses harassment or discrimination during their time at the CHI, we encourage you to file a report. Doing so helps keep us aware of recurring issues, problematic individuals, or structural inequalities that we may have overlooked.
- CHANNELS FOR COMMUNICATION: In addition to revising the standard post-conference survey, we have added the listening post event, one-on-one’s with the Equity chairs during CHI (just flag us down if you see us in person!), a report-filing system, allies, and an anonymous message center.
- MULTI-FAITH QUIET ROOM: This year, an on-site multi-faith room has been secured. Rules and guidelines, compiled from best practices across international sources, will be posted outside the room.
- ALL-GENDER BATHROOMS: New this year, SIGCHI has adopted a policy for all-gender bathrooms (restrooms) that applies to the organization of all SIGCHI-sponsored conferences.
- BABY-CHANGE FACILITIES: Please note that the 2019 conference venue features change tables for infants in separate rooms apart from the restrooms.
- DESENSITIZATION ROOM: Participants have shown continued support for an on-site quiet space to decompress, reset, or temporarily distance themselves from the high-intensity stimulation of the conference.
- BETTER BADGE PRONOUNS: All attendees will be given the option to self-identify (or not) on their badges during registration. These badges will be checked and proofed prior to distribution.
- IMPROVED DIETARY REQUIREMENTS: We’re working closely with the registration team and SEC in order to accommodate the wide range of dietary needs during the conference.
We are extremely motivated to start laying the groundwork for the sustained growth of equity-related efforts in our conference community. We’re here to be accountable to you, help communicate across the labor of many hands and hearts that make CHI possible, and to do what we can to facilitate better community norms and a culture of understanding at CHI. Follow us, find and speak with us during the conference, and head over to the equity page for a lot of important information, community guidelines and events!
This year’s theme for CHI is ‘Weaving the Threads of CHI’, inviting us to see the connections between different strands of research and how they connect the field. To provide the community with an opportunity to reflect on how different aspects of the field come together to create something each of them could not do individually, we offer up a knitting pattern that visualises the ‘Threads of CHI’. These knitting patterns are provided by Katta Spiel, Assistant to the General Chairs.
Yarn: The sample piece uses fairalpaka DK yarn (100m/50g). A finished piece requires about 1 ball o the main colour (MC; teal) and about 20g of the contrasting colour (CC; tangerine).
Needles: We used 3.5mm double pointed needles (dpns) for the sample piece. You might prefer to knit with 40cm circular needles.
- knit (k)
- purl (p)
- knit through back loop (ktbl)
- twist through back loop (twbl) – insert right needle into second stitch on left needle and purl without dropping, then ktbl into first stitch on the left needle, dropping both together
Repeat all parts for the round (chart below).
- repeat step 1
- move first stitch of the round to left needle, repeat step 3
- repeat step 4
- repeat steps 5 and 6 twice more
Each round seen on the chart is knitted twice, once as a knitted round, once as a purled round. Note that after each garter ridge, colour changes, starting with teal. Essentially, you start with a knit teal round according to the black stitches in the chart slipping all white ones (with teal yarn in back), then you purl the stitches you knit previously, slipping all you slipped previously. Then you switch to the tangerine and knit all white stitches in the chart (indicating row 3), slipping the black (a.k.a. teal) ones and repeating with a purl round. This sounds much more complicated than it really is. You can also find an introduction to garter stitch mosaic patterns here.
The pattern comes in two sizes: S/M and L (sample piece shown in S/M). Instructions are given for S/M (L). The pattern is knit in the round.
- with MC cast on 108 (126) stitches; connect in the round be careful not to twist.
- purl 1 round, knit 1 round, purl 1 round
- knit Stripe pattern 36 (42) times through the round
- knit 1 round, purl 1 round (twice)
- switch to CC
- knit 1 round, purl 1 round
- knit Mosaic pattern 6 (7) times through the round
- knit 1 round, purl 1 round, cut CC
- with MC: knit 1 round, purl 1 round (twice)
- knit Stripe pattern 36 (42) times through the round
- knit 1 round, purl 1 round, knit 1 round
- bind off loosely by purling the last round
- weave in ends and block lightly, if desired.
The SIGCHI “Best of CHI” awards honour exceptional submissions to SIGCHI sponsored conferences.
A total of 29 Papers received a Best Paper award, as selected by the Best Papers committee. CHI Associate Chairs nominated 119 papers to receive a Honourable Mention.
The full list of Best Papers and Honourable Mentions for CHI 2019 is included below.
CHI 2019 Best Papers
“Occupational Therapy is Making”: Design Iteration and Digital Fabrication in Occupational Therapy
Megan Hofmann, Kristin Williams, Toni Kaplan, Stephanie Valencia, Gabriella Han, Scott E Hudson, Jennifer Mankoff, Patrick Carrington
“I feel it is my responsibility to stream”: Streaming and Engaging with Intangible Cultural Heritage through Livestreaming
Zhicong Lu, Michelle Annett, Mingming Fan, Daniel Wigdor
Guerilla Warfare and the Use of New (and Some Old) Technology: Lessons from FARC’s Armed Struggle in Colombia
Debora, Castro, Leal, Max Krüger, Kaoru Misaki, Dave Randall, Volker Wulf
Investigating Slowness as a Frame to Design Longer-Term Experiences with Personal Data: A Field Study of Olly
William Odom, Ron Wakkary, Jeroen Hol, Bram Naus, Pepijn Verburg, Tal Amram, Amy Yo Sue Chen
Engagement with Mental Health Screening on Mobile Devices: Results from an Antenatal Feasibility Study
Kevin Doherty, Jose Marcano-Belisario, Martin Cohn, Nikolaos Mastellos, Cecily Morrison, Josip Car, Gavin Doherty
Anchored Audio Sampling: A Seamless Method for Exploring Children’s Thoughts During Deployment Studies
Alexis Hiniker, Jon Froehlich, Mingrui Ray Zhang, Erin Beneteau
Unremarkable AI: Fitting Intelligent Decision Support into Critical, Clinical Decision-Making Processes
Qian Yang, Aaron Steinfeld, John Zimmerman
Online grocery delivery services: An opportunity to address food disparities in transportation-scarce areas
Tawanna R Dillahunt, Sylvia Simioni, Xuecong Xu
Voice User Interfaces in Schools: Co-designing for Inclusion With Visually-Impaired and Sighted Pupils
Oussama Metatla, Alison Oldfield, Taimur Ahmed, Antonis Vafeas, Sunny Miglani
Increasing the Transparency of Research Papers with Explorable Multiverse Analyses
Pierre Dragicevic, Yvonne Jansen, Abhraneel Sarma, Matthew Kay, Fanny Chevalier
Geppetto: Enabling Semantic Design of Expressive Robot Behaviors
Ruta Desai, Fraser Anderson, Justin Matejka, Stelian Coros, James Lewis McCann, George Fitzmaurice, Tovi Grossman
Project Sidewalk: A Web-based Crowdsourcing Tool for Collecting Sidewalk Accessibility Data At Scale
Manaswi Saha, Michael Saugstad, Hanuma Teja Maddali, Aileen Zeng, Ryan Holland, Steven Bower, Aditya Dash, Sage Chen, Anthony Li, Kotaro Hara, Jon Froehlich
Touchstone2: An Interactive Environment for Exploring Trade-offs in HCI Experiment Design
Alexander Eiselmayer, Chat Wacharamanotham, Michel Beaudouin-Lafon, Wendy Elizabeth Mackay
AffinityLens: Data-Assisted Affinity Diagramming with Augmented Reality
Hariharan Subramonyam, Steven Drucker, Eytan Adar
A Translational Science Model for HCI
Lucas Franco Colusso, Ridley Jones, Sean A. Munson, Gary Hsieh
A Tale of Two Perspectives: A Conceptual Framework of User Expectations and Experiences of Instructional Fitness Apps
Ahed Aladwan, Ryan M Kelly, Steven Baker, Eduardo Velloso
Street-Level Algorithms: A Theory At The Gaps Between Policy and Decisions
Ali Alkhatib, Michael Bernstein
Risk vs. Restriction: The Tension between Providing a Sense of Normalcy and Keeping Foster Teens Safe Online
Karla Badillo-Urquiola, Xinru Page, Pamela J. Wisniewski
Protection, Productivity and Pleasure in the Smart Home: Emerging Expectations and Gendered Insights from Australian Early Adopters
Yolande Strengers, Jenny Kennedy, Larissa Nicholls, Paula Arcari, Mel Gregg
Detecting Personality Traits Using Eye-Tracking Data
Shlomo Berkovsky, Ronnie Taib, Irena Koprinska, Eileen Wang, Yucheng Zeng, Jingjie Li, Sabina Kleitman
ReType: Quick Text Editing with Keyboard and Gaze
Shyamli Sindhwani, Christof Lutteroth, Gerald Weber
Data is Personal: Attitudes and Perceptions of Data Visualization in Rural Pennsylvania
Evan Peck, Omar El-Etr, Sofia E Ayuso
PicMe: Interactive Visual Guidance for Taking Requested Photo Composition
Minju Kim, Jungjin Lee
Managing Messes in Computational Notebooks
Andrew Head, Fred Hohman, Titus Barik, Steven Drucker, Robert DeLine
A Framework for the Experience of Meaning in Human-Computer Interaction
Elisa D Mekler, Kasper Hornbæk
Managerial Visions: Stories of upgrading and maintaining the public restroom with IoT
Sarah Fox, Kiley Sobel, Daniela Rosner
Social Play in an Exergame: How the Need to Belong Predicts Adherence
Maximus D. Kaos, Ryan Rhodes, Perttu Hämäläinen, T.C. Nicholas Graham
“Think secure from the beginning”: A Survey with Software Developers
Hala Assal, Sonia Chiasson
“They don’t leave us alone anywhere we go”: Gender and Digital Abuse in South Asia
Nithya Sambasivan, Amna Batool, Nova Ahmed, Tara Matthews, Kurt Thomas, Laura Sanely Gaytán-Lugo, David Nemer, Elie Bursztein, Elizabeth Churchill, Sunny Consolvo
CHI 2019 Honourable Mentions
“Beautiful Seams”: Strategic Revelations and Concealments
Sarah Inman, David Ribes
Alternative Avenues for IoT: Designing with Non-Stereotypical Homes
Audrey Desjardins, Jeremy Edward Viny, Cayla Key, Nouela Johnston
Designing for the Infrastructure of the Supply Chain of Malay Handwoven Songket in Terengganu
Min Zhang, Corina Sas, Zoe Lambert, Masitah Ahmad
Self-Control in Cyberspace: Applying Dual Systems Theory to a Review of Digital Self-Control Tools
Ulrik Lyngs, Kai Lukoff, Petr Slovak, Reuben Binns, Adam Slack, Michael Inzlicht, Max Van Kleek, Nigel Shadbolt
Managing Multimorbidity: Identifying Design Requirements for a Digital Self-Management Tool to Support Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions
Julie Doyle, Emma Murphy, Janneke, Maria Louise, Kuiper, Suzanne Smith, Caoimhe Hannigan, An Jacobs, John Gerard Dinsmore
Beyond Tutoring: Opportunities for Intergenerational Mentorship at a Community Level
Ye Yuan, Svetlana Yarosh
A Place to Play: The (Dis)Abled Embodied Experience for Autistic Children in Online Spaces
Kathryn E. Ringland
Empowering Expression for Users with Aphasia through Constrained Creativity
Timothy Neate, Abi Roper, Stephanie Wilson, Jane Marshall
What Happens After Disclosing Stigmatized Experiences on Identified Social Media: Individual, Dyadic, and Social/Network Outcomes
Cognitive Aids in Acute Care: Investigating How Cognitive Aids Affect and Support In-hospital Emergency Teams
Tobias Grundgeiger, Stephan Huber, Daniel Reinhardt, Andreas Steinisch, Oliver Happel, Thomas Wurmb
Experimental Analysis of Barehand Mid-air Mode-Switching Techniques in Virtual Reality
Hemant Bhaskar Surale, Fabrice Matulic, Daniel Vogel
ActiveInk: (Th)Inking with Data
Hugo Romat, Nathalie Henry Riche, Ken Hinckley, Bongshin Lee, Caroline Appert, Emmanuel Pietriga, Christopher Collins
Human-Centered Tools for Coping with Imperfect Algorithms During Medical Decision-Making
Carrie J Cai, Emily Reif, Narayan Hegde, Jason Hipp, Been Kim, Daniel Smilkov, Martin Wattenberg, Fernanda Viegas, Greg S Corrado, Martin Stumpe, Michael Terry
Ways of Knowing When Research Subjects Care
Dorothy Howard, Lilly Irani
“This Girl is on Fire”: Sensemaking in an Online Health Community for Vulvodynia
Alyson L. Young, Andrew D Miller
Socio-technical Dynamics: Cooperation of Emergent and Established Organisations in Crises and Disasters
Daniel Auferbauer, Hilda Tellioglu
“Can you believe [1:21]?!”: Content and Time-Based Reference Patterns in Video Comments
Matin Yarmand, Dongwook Yoon, Samuel Dodson, Ido Roll, Sidney S Fels
Impact of Contextual Factors on Snapchat Public Sharing
Hana Habib, Neil Shah, Rajan Vaish
Seekers, Providers, Welcomers, and Storytellers: Modeling Social Roles in Online Health Communities
Diyi Yang, Robert E Kraut, Tenbroeck Smith, Elijah Mayfield, Dan Jurafsky
Printer Pals: Experience-Centered Design to Support Agency for People with Dementia
Sarah Foley, Daniel Welsh, Nadia Pantidi, Kellie Morrissey, Thomas Nappey, John McCarthy
HCI and Affective Health: Taking stock of a decade of studies and charting future research directions
Pedro Sanches, Axel Janson, Pavel Karpashevich, Camille Nadal, Chengcheng Qu, Claudia, Dauden, Roquet, Muhammad Umair, Charles Windlin, Gavin Doherty, Kristina Höök, Corina Sas
Unobtrusively Enhancing Reflection-in-Action of Teachers through Spatially Distributed Ambient Information
Pengcheng An, Saskia Bakker, Sara Ordanovski, Ruurd Taconis, Chris L.E. Paffen, Berry Eggen
Understanding the Effect of Accuracy on Trust in Machine Learning Models
Ming Yin, Jennifer Wortman Vaughan, Hanna Wallach
FTVR in VR: Evaluation of 3D Perception With a Simulated Volumetric Fish-Tank Virtual Reality Display
Dylan Brodie Fafard, Ian Stavness, Martin Johannes Dechant, Regan Mandryk, Qian Zhou, Sidney S Fels
Evaluating Sustainable Interaction Design of Digital Services: The Case of YouTube
Chris Preist, Paul Shabajee, Daniel Schien
Developing Accessible Services: Understanding Current Knowledge and Areas for Future Support
Michael Crabb, Michael Heron, Rhia Jones, Mike Armstrong, Hayley Reid, Amy Wilson
Investigating Implicit Gender Bias and Embodiment of White Males in Virtual Reality with Full Body Visuomotor Synchrony
Sarah Lopez, Yi Yang, Kevin Beltran, Soo Jung Kim, Jennifer Cruz Hernandez, Chelsy Simran, Bingkun Yang, Beste Yuksel
Like A Second Skin: Understanding How Epidermal Devices Affect Human Tactile Perception
Aditya Shekhar Nittala, Klaus Kruttwig, Jaeyeon Lee, Roland Bennewitz, Eduard Arzt, Jürgen Steimle
Everyday Experiences: Small Stories and Mental Illness on Instagram
Jessica L. Feuston, Anne Marie Piper
Saliency Deficit and Motion Outlier Detection in Animated Scatterplots
Rafael Veras, Christopher Collins
Autonomous Distributed Energy Systems: Problematising the Invisible through Design, Drama and Deliberation
Larissa Pschetz, Kruakae Pothong, Chris Speed
Sketching NLP: A Case Study of Exploring the Right Things To Design with Language Intelligence
Qian Yang, Justin Cranshaw, Saleema Amershi, Shamsi Iqbal, Jaime Teevan
Toward Algorithmic Accountability in Public Services: A Qualitative Study of Affected Community Perspectives on Algorithmic Decision-Making in Child Welfare Services
Anna Brown, Alexandra Chouldechova, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Andrew Tobin, Rhema Vaithianathan
Empowerment on the Margins: The Online Experiences of Community Health Workers
Azra Ismail, Neha Kumar
Student Perspectives on Digital Phenotyping: The Acceptability of Using Smartphone Data to Assess Mental Health
John Rooksby, Alistair Morrison, Dave Murray-Rust
AdaCAD: Crafting Software For Smart Textiles Design
Mikhaila Friske, Shanel Wu, Laura Devendorf
Local Standards for Anonymization Practices in Health, Wellness, Accessibility, and Aging Research at CHI
Jacob Abbott, Haley MacLeod, Novia Nurain, Gustave Essombe Ekobe, Sameer Patil
Practitioners Teaching Data Science in Industry and Academia: Expectations, Workflows, and Challenges
Sean Kross, Philip Guo
SmartEye: Assisting Instant Photo Taking via Integrating User Preference with Deep View Proposal Network
Shuai Ma, Zijun Wei, Feng Tian, Xiangmin Fan, Jianming Zhang, Xiaohui Shen, Zhe Lin, Jin Huang
Emotion Work in Experience-Centered Design
Madeline Balaam, Rob Comber, Rachel, E, Clarke, Charles Windlin, Anna Ståhl, Kristina Höök, Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Hackathons as Participatory Design: Iterating Feminist Utopias
Alexis Hope, Catherine D’Ignazio, Josephine Hoy, Rebecca Michelson, Kate Krontiris, Jennifer Roberts, Ethan Zuckerman
Can Children Understand Machine Learning Concepts? The Effect of Uncovering Black Boxes
Tom Hitron, Yoav Orlev, Ariel Shamir, Iddo Yehoshua Wald, Hadas Erel, Oren Zuckerman
How Do Distance Learners Connect?
Na Sun, Xiying Wang, Mary Beth Rosson
A Walk on the Child Side: Investigating Parents’ and Children’s Experience and Perspective on Mobile Technology for Outdoor Child Independent Mobility
Michela Ferron, Chiara Leonardi, Paolo Massa, Gianluca Schiavo, Amy L. Murphy, Elisabetta Farella
Clairbuoyance: Improving Directional Perception for Swimmers
Francisco Kiss, Paweł W. Woźniak, Felix Scheerer, Julia Dominiak, Andrzej Romanowski, Albrecht Schmidt
Using Time and Space Efficiently in Driverless Cars: Findings of a Co-Design Study
Gunnar Stevens, Paul Bossauer, Stephanie Vonholdt, Christina Pakusch
Sustainabot – Exploring the Use of Everyday Foodstuffs as Output and Input for and with Emergent Users
Simon Robinson, Jennifer Pearson, Mark D Holton, Shashank Ahire, Matt Jones
Ethical Dimensions of Visualization Research
GameViews: Understanding and Supporting Data-driven Sports Storytelling
Qiyu Zhi, Suwen Lin, Poorna Talkad Sukumar, Ronald Metoyer
StoryBlocks: A Tangible Programming Game To Create Accessible Audio Stories
Varsha Koushik, Darren Guinness, Shaun Kane
Symbiotic Encounters: HCI and Sustainable Agriculture
Szu-Yu (Cyn) Liu, Shaowen Bardzell, Jeffrey Bardzell
Pose-Guided Level Design
Yongqi Zhang, Biao Xie, Haikun Huang, Elisa Ogawa, Tongjian You, Lap-Fai (Craig) Yu
“My blood sugar is higher on the weekends”: Finding a Role for Context and Context-Awareness in the Design of Health Self-Management Technology
Shriti Raj, Kelsey Toporski, Ashley Garrity, Joyce Lee, Mark W. Newman
EarTouch: Facilitating Smartphone Use for Visually Impaired People in Public and Mobile Scenarios
Ruolin Wang, Chun Yu, Xing-Dong Yang, Weijie He, Yuanchun Shi
Trolled by the Trolley Problem: On What Matters for Ethical Decision Making in Automated Vehicles
Alexander G. Mirnig, Alexander Meschtscherjakov
Co-Created Personas: Engaging and Empowering Users with Diverse Needs Within the Design Process
Timothy Neate, Aikaterini Bourazeri, Abi Roper, Simone Stumpf, Stephanie Wilson
The Right to the Sustainable Smart City
Sara Heitlinger, Nick Bryan-Kinns, Rob Comber
Dancing With Drones: Crafting Novel Artistic Expressions Through Intercorporeality
Sara Eriksson, Åsa Unander-Scharin, Vincent Trichon, Carl E T Unander-Scharin, Hedvig Kjellström, Kristina Höök
VIPBoard: Improving Screen-Reader Keyboard for Visually Impaired People with Character-Level Auto Correction
Weinan Shi, Chun Yu, Shuyi Fan, Feng Wang, Tong Wang, Xin Yi, Xiaojun Bi, Yuanchun Shi
Shape Changing Surfaces and Structures: Design Tools and Methods for Electroactive Polymers
Karmen Franinovic, Luke Franzke
Causeway: Scaling Situated Learning with Micro-Role Hierarchies
David Lee, Emily S. Hamedian, Greg Wolff, Amy Liu
ChewIt. An Intraoral Interface for Discreet Interactions
Pablo Gallego Cascón, Denys J.C. Matthies, Sachith Muthukumarana, Suranga Nanayakkara
SwarmHaptics: Haptic Display with Swarm Robots
Lawrence H Kim, Sean Follmer
Technologies for Social Justice: Lessons from Sex Workers on the Front Lines
Angelika Strohmayer, Jenn Clamen, Mary E Laing
Coding for Outdoor Play: a Coding Platform for Children to Invent and Enhance Outdoor Play Experiences
Netta Ofer, Idan David, Hadas Erel, Oren Zuckerman
Making Healthcare Infrastructure Work: Unpacking the Infrastructuring Work of Individuals
Xinning Gui, Yunan Chen
What is Mixed Reality?
Maximilian Speicher, Brian D. Hall, Michael Nebeling
Beyond The Force: Using Quadcopters to Appropriate Objects and the Environment for Haptics in Virtual Reality
Parastoo Abtahi, Benoit Landry, Jackie (Junrui) Yang, Marco Pavone, Sean Follmer, James A. Landay
Guidelines for Human-AI Interaction
Saleema Amershi, Dan Weld, Mihaela Vorvoreanu, Adam Fourney, Besmira Nushi, Penny Collisson, Jina Suh, Shamsi Iqbal, Paul N. Bennett, Kori Inkpen, Jaime Teevan, Ruth Kikin-Gil, Eric Horvitz
An Analytic Model for Time Efficient Personal Hierarchies
William Delamare, Ali Neshati, Pourang Irani, Xiangshi Ren
Quantitative Measurement of Tool Embodiment for Virtual Reality Input Alternatives
Ayman Alzayat, Mark Hancock, Miguel Nacenta
Look-From Camera Control for 3D Terrain Maps
Kurtis Danyluk, Bernhard Jenny, Wesley Willett
Reveal: Investigating Proactive Location-Based Reminiscing with Personal Digital Photo Repositories
Emotional Utility and Recall of the Facebook News Feed
Pawarat Nontasil, Stephen J Payne
From Director’s Cut to User’s Cut: to Watch a Brain-Controlled Film is to Edit it
Richard Ramchurn, Sarah Martindale, Max L Wilson, Steve Benford
“If you want, I can store the encrypted password.” A Password-Storage Field Study with Freelance Developers
Alena Naiakshina, Anastasia Danilova, Eva Gerlitz, Emanuel von Zezschwitz, Matthew Smith
Mapping the Margins: Navigating the Ecologies of Domestic Violence Service Provision
Rosanna Bellini, Angelika Strohmayer, Patrick Olivier, Clara Crivellaro
Analyzing Value Discovery in Design Decisions Through Ethicography
Shruthi, Sai, Chivukula, Colin M. Gray, Jason A Brier
The Breaking Hand: Skills, Care, and Sufferings of the Hands of an Electronic Waste Worker in Bangladesh
Mohammad Rashidujjaman Rifat, Hasan Mahmud Prottoy, Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed
Implementing Multi-Touch Gestures with Touch Groups and Cross Events
Steve Oney, Rebecca Krosnick, Joel Brandt, Brad Myers
Detecting Perception of Smartphone Notifications Using Skin Conductance Responses
Pascal E. Fortin, Elisabeth Sulmont, Jeremy Cooperstock
Sensing Posture-Aware Pen+Touch Interaction on Tablets
Yang Zhang, Michel Pahud, Christian Holz, Haijun Xia, Gierad Laput, Michael McGuffin, Xiao Tu, Andrew Mittereder, Fei Su, William Buxton, Ken Hinckley
Search as News Curator: The Role of Google in Shaping Attention to News Information
Daniel Trielli, Nicholas Diakopoulos
Springlets: Expressive, Flexible and Silent On-Skin Tactile Interfaces
Nur Al-huda Hamdan, Adrian Wagner, Simon Voelker, Jürgen Steimle, Jan Borchers
An Explanation for Fitts’ Law-like Performance in Gaze-Based Selection Tasks Using a Psychophysics Approach
Immo Schuetz, T. Scott Murdison, Kevin MacKenzie, Marina Zannoli
Mind the Tap: Assessing Foot-Taps for Interacting with Head-Mounted Displays
Florian Müller, Joshua McManus, Sebastian Günther, Martin Schmitz, Max Mühlhäuser, Markus Funk
To Asymmetry and Beyond!: Improving Social Connectedness by Increasing Designed Interdependence in Cooperative Play
John Harris, Mark Hancock
Behind the Curtain of the “Ultimate Empathy Machine”: On the Composition of Virtual Reality Nonfiction Experiences
Chris Bevan, David, Philip, Green, Harry Farmer, Mandy Rose, Danaë Stanton Fraser, Kirsten Cater, Helen Brown
Understanding the Boundaries between Policymaking and HCI
Anne Spaa, Abigail Durrant, Chris Elsden, John Vines
RePlay: Contextually Presenting Learning Videos Across Software Applications
C. Ailie Fraser, Tricia J. Ngoon, Mira Dontcheva, Scott Klemmer
Interferi: Gesture Sensing using On-Body Acoustic Interferometry
Yasha Iravantchi, Yang Zhang, Evi Bernitsas, Mayank Goel, Chris Harrison
Steering Performance with Error-accepting Delays
Can Mobile Augmented Reality Stimulate a Honeypot Effect? Observations from Santa’s Lil Helper
Ryan M Kelly, Hasan Shahid Ferdous, Niels Wouters, Frank Vetere
A Player-Centric Approach to Designing Spatial Skill Training Games
Helen C Wauck, Elisa D Mekler, Wai-Tat Fu
Enhancing Texture Perception in Virtual Reality using 3D-Printed Hair Structures
Donald Degraen, André Zenner, Antonio Krüger
Smart and Fermented Cities: An Approach to Placemaking in Urban Informatics
Guo Freeman, Jeffrey Bardzell, Shaowen Bardzell, Szu-Yu (Cyn) Liu, Xi Lu, Diandian Cao
Transcalibur: A Weight Shifting Virtual Reality Controller for 2D Shape Rendering based on Computational Perception Model
Jotaro Shigeyama, Takeru Hashimoto, Shigeo Yoshida, Takuji Narumi, Tomohiro Tanikawa, Michitaka Hirose
SottoVoce: An Ultrasound Imaging-Based Silent Speech Interaction Using Deep Neural Networks
Naoki Kimura, Michinari Kono, Jun Rekimoto
HistoryTracker: Minimizing Human Interactions in Baseball Game Annotation
Jorge H Piazentin Ono, Arvi Gjoka, Justin Salamon, Carlos Dietrich, Claudio Silva
Influencers in Multiplayer Online Shooters – Evidence of Social Contagion in Playtime and Social Play
Alessandro Canossa, Ahmad Azadvar, Casper Harteveld, Anders Drachen, Sebastian Deterding
“When the Elephant Trumps”: a Comparative Study on Spatial Audio for Orientation in 360º Videos
Paulo Bala, Raul Masu, Valentina Nisi, Nuno Jardim Nunes
Automation Accuracy Is Good, but High Controllability May Be Better
Quentin Roy, Futian Zhang, Daniel Vogel
Encumbered Interaction: a Study of Musicians Preparing to Perform
Juan Pablo Martinez Avila, Chris Greenhalgh, adrian hazzard, Steve Benford, Alan Chamberlain
Mixed Reality Remote Collaboration Combining 360 Video and 3D Reconstruction
Theophilus Hua Lid Teo, Louise M Lawrence, Gun Lee, Mark Billinghurst, Matt Adcock
AutoFritz: Autocomplete for Prototyping Virtual Breadboard Circuits
Jo-Yu Lo, Da-Yuan Huang, Tzu-Sheng Kuo, Chen-Kuo Sun, Jun Gong, Teddy Seyed, Xing-Dong Yang, Bing-Yu Chen
Heimdall: A Remotely Controlled Inspection Workbench For Debugging Microcontroller Projects
Mitchell Karchemsky, J.D. Zamfirescu-Pereira, Kuan-Ju Wu, Francois Guimbretiere, Bjoern Hartmann
Charting Subtle Interaction in the HCI Literature
Henning Pohl, Andreea Muresan, Kasper Hornbæk
What Makes a Good Conversation? Challenges in Designing Truly Conversational Agents
Leigh Clark, Nadia Pantidi, Orla Cooney, Philip Doyle, Diego Garaialde, Justin Edwards, Brendan Spillane, Emer Gilmartin
Poirot: A Web Inspector for Designers
Kesler Tanner, Naomi Sarah Johnson, James A. Landay
Put Your Warning Where Your Link Is: Improving and Evaluating Email Phishing Warnings
Justin Petelka, Yixin Zou, Florian Schaub
Implicit Communication of Actionable Information in Human-AI teams
Claire Liang, Julia Proft, Erik Andersen, Ross A Knepper
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The Channel Matters: Self-disclosure, Reciprocity and Social Support in Online Cancer Support Groups
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If It’s Important It Will Be A Headline: Cybersecurity Information Seeking in Older Adults
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Now that CHI is just around the corner, we would like to invite you again to communicate any accessibility needs/requests by the early registration deadline, which is Monday, March 18, 2019. These needs may include ASL translation and special equipments, food requirements, accessibility issues in terms of getting around the venue, etc.
We have been working on a few items, including:
- Working with student volunteer (SV) chairs to train student volunteers to handle accessibility issues during the conference;
- Ensuring that the washroom signage are following the SIGCHI guidelines;
- Ensuring that paper programs are available to those who need or prefer them;
A few other things you should know:
- CHI 2019 will be held in the three different venues across the central SEC, Crown Plaza Hotel, and Armadillo building. Therefore, you will have to walk a fair amount to travel across these venues;
- We do provide a desensitization room, a quiet small low sensory input room, for those who need to disengage;
- CHI is flash-free, which means that there will be no flash photography allowed at the conference, as it will affect people with epilepsy or those prone to migraines.
For other information about accessibility at CHI 2019, please consult:
From your accessibility co-chairs,
Edith Law (University of Waterloo)
Sunyoung Kim (Rutgers University)
We are excited to announce our opening keynote speaker: Dr Aleks Krotoski.
We are excited to announce our closing keynote speaker: Dr Ivan Poupyrev.
One of our goals for CHI2019 is to start making CHI more sustainable.
There are hard questions we all must face if we care about our planet, its ecosystem, and the impacts humanity is having (and vice versa) , , . As academics, educators, human beings, what role do we play in our work and in our practice as a community of conference goers? In our SIG at CHI last year, we pledged to start this conversation at CHI. We’re grateful to the general chairs who have, for the first time, created a sustainability role for us to make a start on addressing these important questions.
There can be no doubt, making a conference sustainable is not easy: by far the most carbon intensive thing most of us will do is utilise air travel, yet this has become an essential part of modern careers and lifestyles. Tackling this will require thinking again about the very existential notions of conferences as we know them. This year, a virtual PC meeting, went some small way towards offsetting this as far fewer people travelled than would normally. The conference venue (SEC)’ ‘trees for life’ programme, which aims to offset some of the venue’s footprint by planting new forests, will also help. However, we should not fool ourselves into thinking CHI 2019 will be entirely sustainable!
We will however make as many adjustments that benefit environmental sustainability as we can – some of which will impact you as attendees! Concretely, we are:
Targeting a reduction of single use plastics and hard to recycle paper. A conference like CHI can create a large amount of plastic and hard to recycle paper waste such as our name badges, disposable cups, and promotional materials. For CHI 2019, we aim to reduce the amount of printed leaflets and promotions, including the ones that were handed out in previous years as part of the package attendees received at the registration desk, and minimize the amount of disposable cups at the venue. For this year, this means:
- No bag by default. We have decided that there will be no conference bag by default for attendees on the grounds that these are often discarded in any case, and we have long since moved past printed proceedings. Instead we are exploring an option to buy a high quality long life bag if you need it. If you have one, why not bring a bag from a previous CHI? – the earlier the better!
- Hydration stations. There will be water coolers where you can refill your own bottles, so please do bring one if you have one.
- Reusable lanyards and badge holders. We will be moving to more generic lanyards that can be reused year on year.
- Shared transport options. There are excellent public transport links to the venue, for instance, we’re close to Glasgow train station, and there are local bike hire schemes with cycle parking at the venue. We’ll be working to provide more information on this in coming weeks.
Beyond these changes, we are aiming to:
Benchmark the overall carbon footprint of the CHI conference. To help target reductions of the carbon footprint of CHI on an ongoing basis, we must first understand where the opportunities for reduction lie. For CHI 2019 we have been working closely with SEC to promote their green and low carbon initiatives (“the SEC team has implemented over 15 initiatives to aid the goal of achieving zero waste to landfill by 2020”) and their carbon offset programme supporting Scottish Forestry (Trees of Life), as well as gathering primary data on the energy used for our conference. Look out for our reports on our 2019 benchmarks in a future blog post.
Working with caterers to providing sustainable food. We are pushing for locally sourced, healthy and sustainable food choices during breaks and at catered events. By reducing the number of food miles (e.g. the mileage that the food has moved through supply chains), rethinking the amount of high carbon ingredients (e.g. red meat, imported fresh fruit and vegetables) in the menus, and asking for sustainable sourcing, we are aiming to reduce the impact of CHI’s food where feasible.
For the future, we will:
Identify challenges in the of planning CHI.
Some of the potential barriers that we have identified are:
- Cost. Often, more sustainable choices are more expensive. To help drive a sustainability agenda for the CHI conference we need to frugally plan how to enable sustainability without passing additional costs onto attendees.
- Reducing food waste. Due to issues around food safety it can be hard to donate “waste” food to local charities.
- Varying International Policy and Sustainability Commitments. Given the varying cultural interpretation and commitments regarding sustainability, food and the environment we expect to face a different array of challenges as CHI moves from host to host.
- Timelines for change – perhaps naively, we came into this process thinking we could change everything! As some of you may suspect, organising a conference as large as CHI takes around 2 years (and many of the decisions, such as the selection of venue takes place even further in advance). The Sustainability Chair role at CHI was created at the kick-off meeting in July 2018 (roughly 13 months into the process of organising CHI 2019). We now realise, that this ship will take longer to turn! A number of commitments have already been made which impose certain constraints regarding sustainability years before any single event. There are also very real budgetary constraints and associated practical trade-offs. We will be documenting this to help factor sustainability decisions earlier into the planning cycles.
For 2020 (and beyond) we look to:
- Work closely with caterers, venues, and logistics plans to help build deeper sustainability roots for CHI
- Elect one (or more) Sustainability Chair(s) who are local to the venue, and can provide local, community and cultural contexts for sustainability and green initiatives and challenges
- Engaging with the PC process to assess the viability of more interactive remote participation at the CHI conference, as well as supporting our telepresence attendance options
- Producing documentation, guidelines or whatever for next year’s Sustainability Chairs – ensuring that there are 2 chairs who overlap each year for knowledge and network transfer
- Develop a communications plan for displays and promotional materials
Who are we anyway? We are just volunteers from your community, helping raise the profile of sustainability. Sustainability has been driving our work for the last 8 or so years, focusing on various aspects of everyday life including reducing domestic energy demand, sustainable design, promoting sustainable food choices, and sustainable last-mile logistics. We invite you to join us in helping make a difference to CHI and beyond!
We are, Adrian Friday (Professor of Computing and Sustainability at Lancaster University), Oliver Bates (Chair of the SIGCHI Community on HCI and Sustainability), Christian Remy (Assistant Professor, Aarhus University), and Mike Hazas (Reader, Lancaster University).
One of our general chairs has written a personal letter exhorting the CHI community to handle discussions and complaints in a more constructive way – to choose CHIndness:
“It is great that people in CHI are prepared to raise concerns and issues. As an always-learning-growing community, we need to hear these concerns to make CHI events better. But it is how those concerns and issues are being raised that I think we really need to stop and reflect on. What is happening now, especially via social media, is negative, hurtful, and unproductive and often drowns the attempts at providing constructive feedback or community efforts to make the conference better. My hope is that we can find different ways of raising issues, engaging in discussions and effecting change that are respectful, kinder, more compassionate, and more solution-focussed.”
The key messages are:
- There is no ‘CHI’, there is you and me. We are CHI.
- The CHI conference event (and SIGCHI in general) only happens because of an enormous amount of volunteer effort, done willingly and with great care by your colleagues.
- We are a learning community always trying to improve and constructive feedback is an important part of this.
- The tone of current feedback and discussions on social media can be perceived as negative, hurtful, and counter-productive, with real health and well-being impacts for people involved.
- We can engage in in a much more productive and care-ful way, and grow a kinder community culture.
- Some basic strategies proposed towards this:
- STOP, THINK before posting it on social media.
- What is your real intention?
- Is social media the best avenue for this?
- Do you have all information to make the judgement you are making?
- What assumptions are you making?
- Is there a way of framing the issue orienting to solutions or exploring positive alternatives?
- Before focusing on a complaint, come up with three positive things (that are getting better or things that are working well or similar).
- Take just as much time and effort, if not more, to say thank you, to show appreciation, being specific, being personal, being generous.
- We can be the culture change needed to make that happen.
- STOP, THINK before posting it on social media.
We encourage you to read the full letter and to share it with your colleagues. And for you to help by choosing CHIndness!
Attending CHI can often feel like being in the middle of New York’s Times Square: Interesting things everywhere and a mass of people catching up and having interesting conversations. For a first time attendee it can also seem that everybody knows everyone. However, at CHI 2018 40% of attendees were at their first CHI, faced with an environment of knowing few in a place where everyone seems to know everyone else.
This year were are organising Lunch@CHI, organised lunches that connect new attendees over topics. If you want to attend such a lunch it’s easy: just pick the days you are available, tell us about your research interests and any dietary requirements. You can do all of this on the conference registration form when you register, or you can add it to the conference registration once you have registered. We will then get in touch shortly before the conference with the day and group (of up to 8 others) you will be part of, where you are going and when and where to meet. Each group will also have one experienced CHI attendee who can help you understand how to get the best out of CHI. Each person pays for their own lunch at the restaurant.
We’re also looking for experienced CHI attendees to lead each group. So if you’ve been to CHI at least a couple of times to connect with the freshest minds in CHI, then please fill out this form.
We hope Lunch@CHI will be a great opportunity to weave new connections with other first time attendees over the great culinary delights of Glasgow, that will last through CHI 2019 and beyond.
David McGookin, Joanna Bergström-Lehtovirta and Anusha Withana
Carman Neustaedter and Anthony Tang
CHI 2019 Telepresence Co-Chairs
CHI has created the opportunity for people to remotely attend the ACM CHI conference via telepresence technologies since 2016. The goal has always been to increase access to the conference for remote participants who would otherwise be unable to attend due to mobility impairments, chronic health issues, temporary travel limitations, or cost issues. This year:
- The primary way to remotely attend CHI is through the live streaming of talks;
- In addition, to support social interactions, we have created a programme that pairs up local and remote attendees through a mobile video conferencing setup.
Remote attendance has been carefully explored at CHI and other conferences. It has been carefully thought through and studied over a number of conferences. Ubicomp 2014 in Seattle, USA had 7 people attend remotely using Beam telepresence robots ; CSCW 2016 in San Francisco, USA had 19 people attend remotely using Beams ; and CHI 2016 in San Jose, USA saw 33 people remotely attend via Beams . Each of these experiences was studied and, ultimately, it was found that remote attendees highly valued being able to use a telepresence robot to remotely be there, move around, watch talks, and engage socially with others. Beams worked especially well for small-scale social interactions with others, like during breaks and in-between sessions. Of course, the experience wasn’t without its challenges. Interactions were not always easy and sometimes local attendees were less excited about the Beams (e.g., blocking one’s view during a talk, being disruptive). But, for the most part, local attendees saw value in helping conferences create a more accessible and inclusive environment for people. Given the overall success, remote attendance continued at CHI 2017 and CHI 2018. Live streaming of talks was added at CHI 2018 in Montreal, Canada and this helped get around challenges with remote attendees finding it hard to see speakers and slides during presentations.
Telepresence robots present pragmatic challenges and other solutions are also needed. Over the years we also have faced pragmatic challenges with using telepresence robots at conferences. Telepresence robots require high Internet bandwidth over WiFi in order to work well. Beams (or equivalent telepresence robots) aren’t available everywhere and so we have had to ship them to each conference’s location from California, USA. This was not always cheap and did not present a globally responsive solution to reducing carbon footprints. While remote attendees helped promote sustainability by not traveling, as ironic as it is, the Beams still had to travel. CHI 2019 proved to be especially challenging when it came to telepresence robots for a number of reasons. Shipping costs to get Beams to Glasgow was high; the conference venue has a variety of levels, some narrow corridors, and different buildings making it hard for telepresence robots to move about; and, WiFi at the conference venue is not available at the bandwidth levels needed by Beams. (But don’t worry – WiFi should be fine for regular attendees! You likely don’t need the > 20 MBps upload and download speeds that a telepresence robot needs.) For these reasons, we decided to explore alternative ideas for remote attendance at CHI 2019.
Over the years, we have brainstormed a large number of different ways to support remote attendance at conferences, ranging from dedicated video conferencing tables in break areas and hallways to situated video conferencing links at the front of presentation rooms to programs that might pair up local and remote attendees. And, that is where we ended up going for CHI 2019.
Firstly, most paper sessions will be live-streamed, free of charge to people taking advantage of this. Secondly, we want to provide access to social interaction with our buddy/human proxy pairing of local and remote attendees.
Research has shown that ‘Human proxies’ can create an enjoyable experience for pairs of people. The idea started back in 2014 when two of Neustaedter’s grad students saw an episode of the US TV show, Arrested Development, where a man on house arrest uses a ‘surrogate’ to be present at work for him. The surrogate wore a head-mounted camera and could do things on the behalf of his boss. While meant to be humorous in the TV show, the students thought it would be fun to try the idea for real in one of their grad courses when one of the students was traveling and couldn’t be in class in person. The experience raised interested technical and social questions, so Neustaedter’s group decided to formally study the use of human proxies in more detail in two university classes. In the classes, pairs of friends tried out the human proxy experience; one stayed at home and attended class through a video conferencing link ‘worn’ by the other friend. The work was published at CHI 2016 and received an Honourable Mention . One of the main conclusions from the study was that students really valued the experience of remote class attendance when paired with a friend. Classroom human proxies were not generally seen as a way to ‘control another person’; instead, it was seen as a way to do pairwise learning with a friend. Students liked being able to interact with their friend while engaging in the class and its activities. Of course, this type of experience still raises many interesting socio-technical questions and, done without the right intentions, could lead to challenging problems around ethics, privacy, autonomy, and much more. That is to say, we are fully aware of the complexities and issues with the idea of human proxies.
Creating networking opportunities through remote CHI buddies and proxies. When the challenges around remote attendance at CHI 2019 emerged, we thought that human proxies may be a possible solution to explore. We envisioned it as a networking opportunity where those local to the conference location could volunteer to ‘bring in’ a remote attendee using a wearable video conferencing system – e.g., a tablet that could be hung around one’s neck, carried in one’s hands, or held at one’s side. The local volunteer could take the remote attendee around the conference venue so they could interact with people and experience the social aspects of CHI like talking with others, seeing demos, etc. To see paper presentations, the remote attendee could watch the live streams of talks on the web. The benefit to the local volunteer would be that they could get to know more people at CHI by attending ‘with’ the remote person, and vice versa. Thus, we saw it as a valuable opportunity for both the local and remote person. We thought being a local volunteer could be especially valuable for newcomers to CHI such as new grad students who may not know a lot of people and want to network with others. It could also be a great way for a lab group attending the conference to involve one of their colleagues who can’t be there. Anybody who is interested can contact us and ask to participate as a proxy. There’s no intention of coercing anybody into being a proxy and proxies can certainly choose what they do to help out the remote attendee.
Given the number of people who have attended CHI remotely over the past two years, we anticipate that there might be up to about 5 human proxy pairs at any one time. Thus, it was not seen as something that would be implemented on a massive scale. Remote attendees will have to pay a small fee to help cover the costs of enhanced WiFi as well as the technical setup. It’s not a means to pay a proxy.
Overall, we see the use of ‘CHI local buddies’ or ‘human proxies’ as a positive bonus for both local and remote attendees to enable social contact and interaction. Our initial CHI web page describing the telepresence experience was unfortunately too ‘functional’ and did not clearly articulate our intentions or what we see as the benefits. The recent discussions have also caused us to rethink some aspects of the implementation by drawing in more volunteers and exploring different mounting/carrying solutions.
We are hopeful that our updates and this blog do a much better job of describing the intended experience and look forward to the community’s support in enabling increased access via remote participation at CHI.
 Carman Neustaedter, Gina Venolia, Jason Procyk, and Daniel Hawkins. 2016. To Beam or Not to Beam: A Study of Remote Telepresence Attendance at an Academic Conference. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (CSCW ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 418-431. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2818048.2819922
 Carman Neustaedter, Samarth Singhal, Rui Pan, Yasamin Heshmat, Azadeh Forghani, and John Tang. 2018. From Being There to Watching: Shared and Dedicated Telepresence Robot Usage at Academic Conferences. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 25, 6, Article 33 (December 2018), 39 pages. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3243213
 Irene Rae and Carman Neustaedter. 2017. Robotic Telepresence at Scale. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’17). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 313-324. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3025453.3025855
 Clarissa Ishak, Carman Neustaedter, Dan Hawkins, Jason Procyk, and Michael Massimi. 2016. Human Proxies for Remote University Classroom Attendance. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 931-943. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2858036.2858184